Сноуборд GNU Carbon Credit (15-16): Характеристики. Карбоновый кредит


Carbon credit - Wikipedia

A carbon credit is a generic term for any tradable certificate or permit representing the right to emit one tonne of carbon dioxide or the mass of another greenhouse gas with a carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e) equivalent to one tonne of carbon dioxide.[1][2][3]

Carbon credits and carbon markets are a component of national and international attempts to mitigate the growth in concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs). One carbon credit is equal to one tonne of carbon dioxide, or in some markets, carbon dioxide equivalent gases. Carbon trading is an application of an emissions trading approach. Greenhouse gas emissions are capped and then markets are used to allocate the emissions among the group of regulated sources.

The goal is to allow market mechanisms to drive industrial and commercial processes in the direction of low emissions or less carbon intensive approaches than those used when there is no cost to emitting carbon dioxide and other GHGs into the atmosphere. Since GHG mitigation projects generate credits, this approach can be used to finance carbon reduction schemes between trading partners and around the world.

There are also many companies that sell carbon credits to commercial and individual customers who are interested in lowering their carbon footprint on a voluntary basis. These carbon offsetters purchase the credits from an investment fund or a carbon development company that has aggregated the credits from individual projects. Buyers and sellers can also use an exchange platform to trade, which is like a stock exchange for carbon credits. The quality of the credits is based in part on the validation process and sophistication of the fund or development company that acted as the sponsor to the carbon project. This is reflected in their price; voluntary units typically have less value than the units sold through the rigorously validated Clean Development Mechanism.[4]

Definitions[edit]

The Collins English Dictionary defines a carbon credit as “a certificate showing that a government or company has paid to have a certain amount of carbon dioxide removed from the environment”.[1] The Environment Protection Authority of Victoria defines a carbon credit as a “generic term to assign a value to a reduction or offset of greenhouse gas emissions.. usually equivalent to one tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e).”[5]

The Investopedia Inc investment dictionary defines a carbon credit as a “permit that allows the holder to emit one ton of carbon dioxide”..which “can be traded in the international market at their current market price”.[3]

There are two main markets for carbon credits; Compliance Market credits Secondary / Verified Market credits (VERs) [6]

Background[edit]

The burning of fossil fuels is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions,[7][8] especially for power, cement, steel, textile, fertilizer and many other industries which rely on fossil fuels (coal, electricity derived from coal, natural gas and oil). The major greenhouse gases emitted by these industries are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), etc., all of which increase the atmosphere's ability to trap infrared energy and thus affect the climate.

The concept of carbon credits came into existence as a result of increasing awareness of the need for controlling emissions. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) has observed[9] that:

Policies that provide a real or implicit price of carbon could create incentives for producers and consumers to significantly invest in low-GHG products, technologies and processes. Such policies could include economic instruments, government funding and regulation,

while noting that a tradable permit system is one of the policy instruments that has been shown to be environmentally effective in the industrial sector, as long as there are reasonable levels of predictability over the initial allocation mechanism and long-term price.

The mechanism was formalized in the Kyoto Protocol, an international agreement between more than 170 countries, and the market mechanisms were agreed through the subsequent Marrakesh Accords. The mechanism adopted was similar to the successful US Acid Rain Program to reduce some industrial pollutants.

Emission allowances[edit]

Under the Kyoto Protocol, the 'caps' or quotas for Greenhouse gases for the developed Annex 1 countries are known as Assigned Amounts and are listed in Annex B.[10] The quantity of the initial assigned amount is denominated in individual units, called Assigned amount units (AAUs), each of which represents an allowance to emit one metric tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent, and these are entered into the country's national registry.[11]

In turn, these countries set quotas on the emissions of installations run by local business and other organizations, generically termed 'operators'. Countries manage this through their national registries, which are required to be validated and monitored for compliance by the UNFCCC.[12] Each operator has an allowance of credits, where each unit gives the owner the right to emit one metric tonne of carbon dioxide or other equivalent greenhouse gas. Operators that have not used up their quotas can sell their unused allowances as carbon credits, while businesses that are about to exceed their quotas can buy the extra allowances as credits, privately or on the open market. As demand for energy grows over time, the total emissions must still stay within the cap, but it allows industry some flexibility and predictability in its planning to accommodate this.

By permitting allowances to be bought and sold, an operator can seek out the most cost-effective way of reducing its emissions, either by investing in 'cleaner' machinery and practices or by purchasing emissions from another operator who already has excess 'capacity'.

Since 2005, the Kyoto mechanism has been adopted for CO2 trading by all the countries within the European Union under its European Trading Scheme (EU ETS) with the European Commission as its validating authority.[13] From 2008, EU participants must link with the other developed countries who ratified Annex I of the protocol, and trade the six most significant anthropogenic greenhouse gases. In the United States, which has not ratified Kyoto, and Australia, whose ratification came into force in March 2008, similar schemes are being considered.

Kyoto's 'Flexible mechanisms'[edit]

A tradable credit can be an emissions allowance or an assigned amount unit which was originally allocated or auctioned by the national administrators of a Kyoto-compliant cap-and-trade scheme, or it can be an offset of emissions. Such offsetting and mitigating activities can occur in any developing country which has ratified the Kyoto Protocol, and has a national agreement in place to validate its carbon project through one of the UNFCCC's approved mechanisms. Once approved, these units are termed Certified Emission Reductions, or CERs. The Protocol allows these projects to be constructed and credited in advance of the Kyoto trading period.

The Kyoto Protocol provides for three mechanisms that enable countries or operators in developed countries to acquire greenhouse gas reduction credits[14]

  • Under Joint Implementation (JI) a developed country with relatively high costs of domestic greenhouse reduction would set up a project in another developed country.
  • Under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) a developed country can 'sponsor' a greenhouse gas reduction project in a developing country where the cost of greenhouse gas reduction project activities is usually much lower, but the atmospheric effect is globally equivalent. The developed country would be given credits for meeting its emission reduction targets, while the developing country would receive the capital investment and clean technology or beneficial change in land use.
  • Under International Emissions Trading (IET) countries can trade in the international carbon credit market to cover their shortfall in Assigned amount units. Countries with surplus units can sell them to countries that are exceeding their emission targets under Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol.

These carbon projects can be created by a national government or by an operator within the country. In reality, most of the transactions are not performed by national governments directly, but by operators who have been set quotas by their country.

Emission markets[edit]

For trading purposes, one allowance or CER is considered equivalent to one metric ton of CO2 emissions. These allowances can be sold privately or in the international market at the prevailing market price. These trade and settle internationally and hence allow allowances to be transferred between countries. Each international transfer is validated by the UNFCCC. Each transfer of ownership within the European Union is additionally validated by the European Commission.

Climate exchanges have been established to provide a spot market in allowances, as well as futures and options market to help discover a market price and maintain liquidity. Carbon prices are normally quoted in Euros per tonne of carbon dioxide or its equivalent (CO2e). Other greenhouse gasses can also be traded, but are quoted as standard multiples of carbon dioxide with respect to their global warming potential. These features reduce the quota's financial impact on business, while ensuring that the quotas are met at a national and international level.

Currently there are five exchanges trading in carbon allowances: the European Climate Exchange, NASDAQ OMX Commodities Europe, PowerNext, Commodity Exchange Bratislava and the European Energy Exchange. NASDAQ OMX Commodities Europe listed a contract to trade offsets generated by a CDM carbon project called Certified Emission Reductions (CERs). Many companies now engage in emissions abatement, offsetting, and sequestration programs to generate credits that can be sold on one of the exchanges. At least one private electronic market has been established in 2008: CantorCO2e.[15] Carbon credits at Commodity Exchange Bratislava are traded at special platform - Carbon place.[16]

Managing emissions is one of the fastest-growing segments in financial services in the City of London with a market estimated to be worth about €30 billion in 2007. Louis Redshaw, head of environmental markets at Barclays Capital predicts that "Carbon will be the world's biggest commodity market, and it could become the world's biggest market overall."[17]

Setting a market price for carbon[edit]

Unchecked, energy use and hence emission levels are predicted to keep rising over time. Thus the number of companies needing to buy credits will increase, and the rules of supply and demand will push up the market price, encouraging more groups to undertake environmentally friendly activities that create carbon credits to sell.

An individual allowance, such as an Assigned amount unit (AAU) or its near-equivalent European Union Allowance (EUA), may have a different market value to an offset such as a CER. This is due to the lack of a developed secondary market for CERs, a lack of homogeneity between projects which causes difficulty in pricing, as well as questions due to the principle of supplementarity and its lifetime. Additionally, offsets generated by a carbon project under the Clean Development Mechanism are potentially limited in value because operators in the EU ETS are restricted as to what percentage of their allowance can be met through these flexible mechanisms.

Yale University economics professor William Nordhaus argues that the price of carbon needs to be high enough to motivate the changes in behavior and changes in economic production systems necessary to effectively limit emissions of greenhouse gases.

Raising the price of carbon will achieve four goals. First, it will provide signals to consumers about what goods and services are high-carbon ones and should therefore be used more sparingly. Second, it will provide signals to producers about which inputs use more carbon (such as coal and oil) and which use less or none (such as natural gas or nuclear power), thereby inducing firms to substitute low-carbon inputs. Third, it will give market incentives for inventors and innovators to develop and introduce low-carbon products and processes that can replace the current generation of technologies. Fourth, and most important, a high carbon price will economize on the information that is required to do all three of these tasks. Through the market mechanism, a high carbon price will raise the price of products according to their carbon content. Ethical consumers today, hoping to minimize their “carbon footprint,” have little chance of making an accurate calculation of the relative carbon use in, say, driving 250 miles as compared with flying 250 miles. A harmonized carbon tax would raise the price of a good proportionately to exactly the amount of CO2 that is emitted in all the stages of production that are involved in producing that good. If 0.01 of a ton of carbon emissions results from the wheat growing and the milling and the trucking and the baking of a loaf of bread, then a tax of $30 per ton carbon will raise the price of bread by $0.30. The “carbon footprint” is automatically calculated by the price system. Consumers would still not know how much of the price is due to carbon emissions, but they could make their decisions confident that they are paying for the social cost of their carbon footprint.

Nordhaus has suggested, based on the social cost of carbon emissions, that an optimal price of carbon is around $30(US) per ton and will need to increase with inflation.

The social cost of carbon is the additional damage caused by an additional ton of carbon emissions. ... The optimal carbon price, or optimal carbon tax, is the market price (or carbon tax) on carbon emissions that balances the incremental costs of reducing carbon emissions with the incremental benefits of reducing climate damages. ... [I]f a country wished to impose a carbon tax of $30 per ton of carbon, this would involve a tax on gasoline of about 9 cents per gallon. Similarly, the tax on coal-generated electricity would be about 1 cent per kWh, or 10 percent of the current retail price. At current levels of carbon emissions in the United States, a tax of $30 per ton of carbon would generate $50 billion of revenue per year.[18]

How buying carbon credits can reduce emissions[edit]

Carbon credits create a market for reducing greenhouse emissions by giving a monetary value to the cost of polluting the air. Emissions become an internal cost of doing business and are visible on the balance sheet alongside raw materials and other liabilities or assets.

For example, consider a business that owns a factory putting out 100,000 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions in a year. Its government is an Annex I country that enacts a law to limit the emissions that the business can produce. So the factory is given a quota of say 80,000 tonnes per year. The factory either reduces its emissions to 80,000 tonnes or is required to purchase carbon credits to offset the excess. After costing up alternatives the business may decide that it is uneconomical or infeasible to invest in new machinery for that year. Instead it may choose to buy carbon credits on the open market from organizations that have been approved as being able to sell legitimate carbon credits.

We should consider the impact of manufacturing alternative energy sources. For example, the energy consumed and the Carbon emitted in the manufacture and transportation of a large wind turbine would prohibit a credit being issued for a predetermined period of time.

  • One seller might be a company that will offer to offset emissions through a project in the developing world, such as recovering methane from a swine farm to feed a power station that previously would use fossil fuel. So although the factory continues to emit gases, it would pay another group to reduce the equivalent of 20,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions from the atmosphere for that year.
  • Another seller may have already invested in new low-emission machinery and have a surplus of allowances as a result. The factory could make up for its emissions by buying 20,000 tonnes of allowances from them. The cost of the seller's new machinery would be subsidized by the sale of allowances. Both the buyer and the seller would submit accounts for their emissions to prove that their allowances were met correctly.

Credits versus taxes[edit]

Carbon credits and carbon taxes each have their advantages and disadvantages. Credits were chosen by the signatories to the Kyoto Protocol as an alternative to Carbon taxes. A criticism of tax-raising schemes is that they are frequently not hypothecated, and so some or all of the taxation raised by a government would be applied based on what the particular nation's government deems most fitting. However, some would argue that carbon trading is based around creating a lucrative artificial market, and, handled by free market enterprises as it is, carbon trading is not necessarily a focused or easily regulated solution.

By treating emissions as a market commodity some proponents insist it becomes easier for businesses to understand and manage their activities, while economists and traders can attempt to predict future pricing using market theories. Thus the main advantages of a tradeable carbon credit over a carbon tax are argued to be:

  • the price may be more likely to be perceived as fair by those paying it. Investors in credits may have more control over their own costs.
  • the flexible mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol help to ensure that all investment goes into genuine sustainable carbon reduction schemes through an internationally agreed validation process.
  • some proponents state that if correctly implemented a target level of emission reductions may somehow be achieved with more certainty, while under a tax the actual emissions might vary over time.
  • it may provide a framework for rewarding people or companies who plant trees or otherwise meet standards exclusively recognized as "green."

The advantages of a carbon tax are argued to be:

  • possibly less complex, expensive, and time-consuming to implement. This advantage is especially great when applied to markets like gasoline or home heating oil.
  • perhaps some reduced risk of certain types of cheating, though under both credits and taxes, emissions must be verified.
  • reduced incentives for companies to delay efficiency improvements prior to the establishment of the baseline if credits are distributed in proportion to past emissions.
  • when credits are grandfathered, this puts new or growing companies at a disadvantage relative to more established companies.
  • allows for more centralized handling of acquired gains
  • worth of carbon is stabilized by government regulation rather than market fluctuations. Poor market conditions and weak investor interest have a lessened impact on taxation as opposed to carbon trading.

Creating carbon credits[edit]

The principle of Supplementarity within the Kyoto Protocol means that internal abatement of emissions should take precedence before a country buys in carbon credits. However it also established the Clean Development Mechanism as a Flexible Mechanism by which capped entities could develop measurable and permanent emissions reductions voluntarily in sectors outside the cap. Many criticisms of carbon credits stem from the fact that establishing that an emission of CO2-equivalent greenhouse gas has truly been reduced involves a complex process. This process has evolved as the concept of a carbon project has been refined over the past 10 years.

The first step in determining whether or not a carbon project has legitimately led to the reduction of measurable and permanent emissions is understanding the CDM methodology process. This is the process by which project sponsors submit, through a Designated Operational Entity (DOE), their concepts for emissions reduction creation. The CDM Executive Board, with the CDM Methodology Panel and their expert advisors, review each project and decide how and if they do indeed result in reductions that are additional[19]

Additionality and its importance[edit]

It is also important for any carbon credit (offset) to prove a concept called additionality. The concept of additionality addresses the question of whether the project would have happened in the absence of an intervention in the form of the price signal of carbon credits. Only projects with emissions below their baseline level, defined as emissions under a scenario without this price signal (holding all other factors constant), represent a net environmental benefit. Carbon projects that yield strong financial returns even in the absence of revenue from carbon credits; or that are compelled by regulations; or that represent common practice in an industry; are usually not considered additional. A full determination of additionality requires a careful investigation of proposed carbon offset projects.

It is generally agreed that voluntary carbon offset projects must demonstrate additionality to ensure the legitimacy of the environmental stewardship claims resulting from the retirement of carbon credits (offsets).

Criticisms[edit]

The Kyoto mechanism is the only internationally agreed mechanism for regulating carbon credit activities, and, crucially, includes checks for additionality and overall effectiveness. Its supporting organisation, the UNFCCC, is the only organisation with a global mandate on the overall effectiveness of emission control systems, although enforcement of decisions relies on national co-operation. The Kyoto trading period only applies for five years between 2008 and 2012. The first phase of the EU ETS system started before then, and is expected to continue in a third phase afterwards, and may co-ordinate with whatever is internationally agreed at but there is general uncertainty as to what will be agreed in Post–Kyoto Protocol negotiations on greenhouse gas emissions. As business investment often operates over decades, this adds risk and uncertainty to their plans. As several countries responsible for a large proportion of global emissions (notably USA, India, China) have avoided mandatory caps, this also means that businesses in capped countries may perceive themselves to be working at a competitive disadvantage against those in uncapped countries as they are now paying for their carbon costs directly.[citation needed]

A key concept behind the cap and trade system is that national quotas should be chosen to represent genuine and meaningful reductions in national output of emissions. Not only does this ensure that overall emissions are reduced but also that the costs of emissions trading are carried fairly across all parties to the trading system. However, governments of capped countries may seek to unilaterally weaken their commitments, as evidenced by the 2006 and 2007 National Allocation Plans for several countries in the EU ETS, which were submitted late and then were initially rejected by the European Commission for being too lax.[20]

A question has been raised over the grandfathering of allowances. Countries within the EU ETS have granted their incumbent businesses most or all of their allowances for free. This can sometimes be perceived as a protectionist obstacle to new entrants into their markets. There have also been accusations of power generators getting a 'windfall' profit by passing on these emissions 'charges' to their customers.[21] As the EU ETS moves into its second phase and joins up with Kyoto, it seems likely that these problems will be reduced as more allowances will be auctioned.

Some sources [22] shows that UK financial service wins a lot from Carbon credit trade. The profit is evident if one check the statistics: London has secured dominance on the global carbon trading market, with net value $64bn in 2007, according to the report by International Financial Services London. London controlled about 90% of the exchange market (Carbon credit vs money) in 2007. London-based companies made about 59% of the purchases of Carbon credits issued by the UN. And some of the Carbon credit's system creators are from UK, for example, the economist, former Senior Vice-President of the World Bank and government economic advisor in the United Kingdom Nicholas Stern, Baron Stern of Brentford who has founded a consultancy-trading agency "The Carbon Rating Agency (CRA)" [23] on the Isle-of-Man (controlled by firm IDEAglobal Group [24] there Stern was a Vice Chairman at that time [25]) for Carbon credit evaluation and firm's rating and making money on that. [26]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Carbon Credit". Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved October 04, 2012 from CollinsDictionary.com. 
  2. ^ "Climate change glossary". Carbon credit. Environment Protection Authority Victoria. 2008-09-02. Retrieved 2010-02-16. 
  3. ^ a b "Investment Dictionary". Carbon Credit Definition. Investopedia Inc. Retrieved 2010-09-11. 
  4. ^ "Making Kyoto work:data, policies, infrastructures". UNFCCC press briefing. 2007-11-20. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  5. ^ Cite error: The named reference ev was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  6. ^ Advanced Global Trading
  7. ^ "Basic Information Climate Change". U.S. EPA. 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2012. 
  8. ^ "Carbon Dioxide Human-Related Sources and Sinks of Carbon Dioxide Climate Change Greenhouse Gas Emissions". U.S. EPA. 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2012. 
  9. ^ "Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change, Summary for Policymakers from IPCC Fourth Assessment Report" (PDF). Working Group III, IPCC. 2007-05-04. pp. Item 25 and Table SPM.7, pages 29–31. Retrieved 2007-05-10. 
  10. ^ "Kyoto Protocol Targets". UNFCCC. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  11. ^ "Kyoto Protocol Reference Manual On Accounting of Emissions and Assigned Amount" (PDF). UNFCCC. Retrieved 2010-04-07. 
  12. ^ "UNFCCC Compliance under the Kyoto Protocol". UNFCCC. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  13. ^ "EU climate change policies: Commission asks member states to fulfill their obligations". EUROPA - Press Releases. 2006-04-06. Retrieved 2010-01-27. 
  14. ^ "The Mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol". UNFCCC. Retrieved 2010-01-27. 
  15. ^ "CantorCO2e Launches First Internet CER Auction" (Press release). CantorCO2e. 2008-09-09. Retrieved 2010-01-27. 
  16. ^ http://www.carbonplace.eu
  17. ^ Kanter, James (2007-06-20). "Carbon trading: Where greed is green". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-01-27. 
  18. ^ Nordhaus,, William (2008). "A Question of Balance - Weighing the Options on Global Warming Policies" (PDF). Yale University Press. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-09-10. 
  19. ^ UNFCCC CDM project database
  20. ^ "France and Italy seek to avoid EU carbon clash". Reuters AlertNet - www.alertnet.org. 2006-12-13. Retrieved 2010-01-27. 
  21. ^ Carr, Mathew; Kishan, Saijel (2006-07-16). "Europe Fails Kyoto Standards as Trading Scheme Helps Polluters". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2010-01-27. 
  22. ^ https://www.ft.com/content/897fc1b4-4219-11dd-a5e8-0000779fd2ac
  23. ^ http://www.carbonratingsagency.com/cra/about-us/advisory-board.htm
  24. ^ http://www.ideaglobal.com/corporate/advisory.html
  25. ^ http://www.prnewswire.co.uk/news-releases/sir-nicholas-stern-to-join-ideaglobal-group-as-vice-chairman-153720615.html
  26. ^ https://www.ft.com/content/897fc1b4-4219-11dd-a5e8-0000779fd2ac

External links[edit]

en.wikipedia.org

carbon credits - Перевод на русский - примеры английский

Возможно, Вы имели в виду:

На основании Вашего запроса эти примеры могут содержать грубую лексику.

На основании Вашего запроса эти примеры могут содержать разговорную лексику.

For mechanisms linked to the carbon market, this relationship is mediated by the price of carbon credits.

Для механизмов, увязанных с углеродным рынком, такая взаимосвязь будет определяться стоимостью углеродных кредитов.

Furthermore, related funds might be paid back through carbon credits from the voluntary market.

Кроме того, вложенные финансовые средства могут окупаться за счет углеродных кредитов с добровольного рынка.

In spite of the global warming benefits of ozone-depleting-substance destruction, the Clean Development Mechanism is not allocating it carbon credits.

Несмотря на выгоды от уничтожения озоноразрушающих веществ с точки зрения глобального потепления, Механизм чистого развития не распределяет углеродные кредиты.

Some delegations sought clarification on the role of governments in the quantification and clarification of carbon credits.

Ряд делегаций обратились с просьбой пояснить роль правительств в процессе количественной оценки и уточнении квот на выбросы углерода.

Private voluntary purchases of carbon credits can provide financing or co-financing for environmental conservation and greenhouse gas reduction projects, including in developing countries.

Частные добровольные покупки квот на выбросы углерода могут обеспечить финансирование или совместное финансирование природоохранных проектов и проектов по сокращению выбросов парниковых газов, в том числе в развивающихся странах.

On the other hand, carbon credits are another growing source of project finance.

С другой стороны, углеродные кредиты являются еще одним растущим источником финансирования проектов.

Developed countries have shown great interest in reducing emissions in return for carbon credits from the Albanian energy and forests sectors.

Развитые страны проявляют большой интерес к сокращению выбросов в обмен на углеродные кредиты в энергетическом и лесном секторах Албании.

The purchase of carbon credits, especially from developing countries, must not exculpate them from that responsibility.

Покупка углеродных кредитов, особенно из развивающихся стран, не должна освобождать их от этой ответственности.

Shareholder countries can purchase carbon credits from emission reduction projects financed by EIB or EBRD to meet their mandatory or voluntary GHG emission reduction targets.

Страны-акционеры могут покупать углеродные кредиты у проектов сокращения уровня выбросов, финансируемых ЕБРР или ЕИБ, для выполнения своих обязательных или добровольных целевых обязательств по сокращению выбросов парниковых газов.

According to Mr. Schultz it is likely to be a firm or person interested in acquiring the carbon credits to a project.

По словам г-на Шульца, это, вероятно, будет фирма или человек, заинтересованные в приобретении связанных с проектом углеродных кредитов.

They also welcomed and approved a recommended approach for voluntary offsetting of greenhouse-gas emissions by Group members entitled "carbon credits - recommendations for selection and procurement".

Они также приветствовали и утвердили рекомендованный членами группы подход к добровольной компенсации выбросов парниковых газов, озаглавленный "Углеродные кредиты - рекомендации по отбору и закупкам".

The panel focused on the current and future demand for carbon credits by developed countries and their perspective for the CDM in a post-2012 regime.

Члены данной группы экспертов сосредоточили внимание на вопросах существующего и будущего спроса на углеродные кредиты со стороны развитых стран и их перспективности для МЧР в рамках режима после 2012 года.

It is expected the Fund will have the potential to mobilise investment capital from utilities, corporations, institutions and public sector agencies wishing to invest in profitable energy efficiency projects as well as to receive "carbon credits" for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

Как ожидается, Фонд позволит привлечь инвестиционные капиталы энергопредприятий, корпораций, учреждений и организаций государственного сектора, желающих инвестировать средства в прибыльные проекты в области энергоэффективности, а также получить "углеродные кредиты" за сокращение выбросов парниковых газов.

Further, the establishment of a commercial vehicle which could facilitate the distribution of carbon credits through concrete investment could accelerate the establishment of global market for such credits.

Кроме того, создание коммерческого инструмента, который мог бы облегчить распределение углеродных кредитов с помощью конкретных инвестиций, может ускорить процесс становления глобального рынка таких кредитов.

He said that in his country significant reduction of mercury emissions and mercury imports in that sector had been achieved through such an approach as well as best practices and good housekeeping without the use of fiscal incentives, carbon credits or accelerated depreciation.

Он заявил, что в его стране существенное сокращение эмиссий и импорта ртути было достигнуто за счет сочетания этого подхода с наилучшими видами практики и эффективной хозяйственной деятельностью без применения финансовых стимулов, углеродных кредитов или ускоренной амортизации.

The other approaches are tackling illegal logging and trade, tackling demand-side management by creating disincentives and carbon deficit levies, and discounting carbon credits based on IED.

Другие подходы направлены на решение проблем незаконных рубок и незаконной торговли, управление спросом при помощи контрстимулов и сборов за дефицит углерода, а также дисконтирование углеродных кредитов, основанных на МСВ.

The fund provides equity and mezzanine finance for energy efficiency, renewable energy and waste-to-energy projects to generate carbon credits and renewable energy certificates.

Фонд обеспечивает акционерное и мезонинное финансирование проектов повышения энергоэффективности, освоения возобновляемых источников энергии и переработки отходов в энергию в целях получения квот на выбросы углерода и сертификатов об использовании возобновляемых источников энергии.

A very small but growing portion of emissions from transport is offset by travellers or tour operators through the purchase of carbon credits which provide (co)financing for environmental conservation and GHG reduction projects.

Пока еще весьма незначительная, но растущая доля выбросов на транспорте компенсируется пассажирами и туроператорами в виде приобретения углеродных кредитов, которые предполагают (со)финансирование проектов по охране природы и сокращению выбросов парниковых газов.

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Carbon Credit International Прогнозы аналитиков

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Carbon credit | Gravity Wiki

This article deals with carbon credits for international trading. For carbon credits for individuals, see Personal carbon trading. For voluntary schemes see also Carbon offset

Carbon credits are a key component of national and international emissions trading schemes that have been implemented to mitigate global warming. They provide a way to reduce greenhouse effect emissions on an industrial scale by capping total annual emissions and letting the market assign a monetary value to any shortfall through trading. Credits can be exchanged between businesses or bought and sold in international markets at the prevailing market price. Credits can be used to finance carbon reduction schemes between trading partners and around the world.

There are also many companies that sell carbon credits to commercial and individual customers who are interested in lowering their carbon footprint on a voluntary basis. These carbon offsetters purchase the credits from an investment fund or a carbon development company that has aggregated the credits from individual projects. The quality of the credits is based in part on the validation process and sophistication of the fund or development company that acted as the sponsor to the carbon project. This is reflected in their price; voluntary units typically have less value than the units sold through the rigorously-validated Clean Development Mechanism[1].

    BackgroundEdit

    Burning of fossil fuels is a major source of industrial greenhouse gas emissions, especially for power, cement, steel, textile, fertilizer and many other industries which rely on fossil fuels (coal, electricity derived from coal, natural gas and oil). The major greenhouse gases emitted by these industries are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), etc, all of which increase the atmosphere's ability to trap infrared energy and thus affect the climate.

    The concept of carbon credits came into existence as a result of increasing awareness of the need for controlling emissions. The IPCC has observed[2] that:

    Policies that provide a real or implicit price of carbon could create incentives for producers and consumers to significantly invest in low-GHG products, technologies and processes. Such policies could include economic instruments, government funding and regulation, while noting that a tradable permit system is one of the policy instruments that has been shown to be environmentally effective in the industrial sector, as long as there are reasonable levels of predictability over the initial allocation mechanism and long-term price.

    The mechanism was formalized in the Kyoto Protocol, an international agreement between more than 170 countries, and the market mechanisms were agreed through the subsequent Marrakesh Accords. The mechanism adopted was similar to the successful US Acid Rain Program to reduce some industrial pollutants.

    Emission allowances Edit

    The Protocol agreed 'caps' or quotas on the maximum amount of Greenhouse gases for developed and developing countries, listed in its Annex I [3]. In turn these countries set quotas on the emissions of installations run by local business and other organizations, generically termed 'operators'. Countries manage this through their own national 'registries', which are required to be validated and monitored for compliance by the UNFCCC[4]. Each operator has an allowance of credits, where each unit gives the owner the right to emit one metric tonne of carbon dioxide or other equivalent greenhouse gas. Operators that have not used up their quotas can sell their unused allowances as carbon credits, while businesses that are about to exceed their quotas can buy the extra allowances as credits, privately or on the open market. As demand for energy grows over time, the total emissions must still stay within the cap, but it allows industry some flexibility and predictability in its planning to accommodate this.

    By permitting allowances to be bought and sold, an operator can seek out the most cost-effective way of reducing its emissions, either by investing in 'cleaner' machinery and practices or by purchasing emissions from another operator who already has excess 'capacity'.

    Since 2005, the Kyoto mechanism has been adopted for CO2 trading by all the countries within the European Union under its European Trading Scheme (EU ETS) with the European Commission as its validating authority[5]. From 2008, EU participants must link with the other developed countries who ratified Annex I of the protocol, and trade the six most significant anthropogenic greenhouse gases. In the United States, which has not ratified Kyoto, and Australia, whose ratification came into force in March 2008, similar schemes are being considered.

    Kyoto's 'Flexible mechanisms' Edit

    A credit can be an emissions allowance which was originally allocated or auctioned by the national administrators of a cap-and-trade program, or it can be an offset of emissions. Such offsetting and mitigating activities can occur in any developing country which has ratified the Kyoto Protocol, and has a national agreement in place to validate its carbon project through one of the UNFCCC's approved mechanisms. Once approved, these units are termed Certified Emission Reductions, or CERs. The Protocol allows these projects to be constructed and credited in advance of the Kyoto trading period.

    The Kyoto Protocol provides for three mechanisms that enable countries or operators in developed countries to acquire greenhouse gas reduction credits[6]

    • Under Joint Implementation (JI) a developed country with relatively high costs of domestic greenhouse reduction would set up a project in another developed country.
    • Under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) a developed country can 'sponsor' a greenhouse gas reduction project in a developing country where the cost of greenhouse gas reduction project activities is usually much lower, but the atmospheric effect is globally equivalent. The developed country would be given credits for meeting its emission reduction targets, while the developing country would receive the capital investment and clean technology or beneficial change in land use.
    • Under International Emissions Trading (IET) countries can trade in the international carbon credit market to cover their shortfall in allowances. Countries with surplus credits can sell them to countries with capped emission commitments under the Kyoto Protocol.

    These carbon projects can be created by a national government or by an operator within the country. In reality, most of the transactions are not performed by national governments directly, but by operators who have been set quotas by their country.

    Emission markets Edit

    For trading purposes, one allowance or CER is considered equivalent to one metric tonne of CO2 emissions. These allowances can be sold privately or in the international market at the prevailing market price. These trade and settle internationally and hence allow allowances to be transferred between countries. Each international transfer is validated by the UNFCCC. Each transfer of ownership within the European Union is additionally validated by the European Commission.

    Climate exchanges have been established to provide a spot market in allowances, as well as futures and options market to help discover a market price and maintain liquidity. Carbon prices are normally quoted in Euros per tonne of carbon dioxide or its equivalent (CO2e). Other greenhouse gasses can also be traded, but are quoted as standard multiples of carbon dioxide with respect to their global warming potential. These features reduce the quota's financial impact on business, while ensuring that the quotas are met at a national and international level.

    Currently there are five exchanges trading in carbon allowances: the Chicago Climate Exchange, European Climate Exchange, Nord Pool, PowerNext and the European Energy Exchange. Recently, NordPool listed a contract to trade offsets generated by a CDM carbon project called Certified Emission Reductions (CERs). Many companies now engage in emissions abatement, offsetting, and sequestration programs to generate credits that can be sold on one of the exchanges. At least two private electronic markets have been established in 2008: CantorCO2e[7] and Preserval Marketplace[8].

    Managing emissions is one of the fastest-growing segments in financial services in the City of London with a market now worth about €30 billion, but which could grow to €1 trillion within a decade.

    See also: Error: Template must be given at least one article name Louis Redshaw, head of environmental markets at Barclays Capital predicts that "Carbon will be the world's biggest commodity market, and it could become the world's biggest market overall." [9]

    Setting a market price for carbon Edit

    Unchecked, energy use and hence emission levels are predicted to keep rising over time. Thus the number of companies needing to buy credits will increase, and the rules of supply and demand will push up the market price, encouraging more groups to undertake environmentally friendly activities that create carbon credits to sell.

    An individual allowance, such as a Kyoto Assigned Amount Unit (AAU) or its near-equivalent European Union Allowance (EUA), may have a different market value to an offset such as a CER. This is due to the lack of a developed secondary market for CERs, a lack of homegeneity between projects which causes difficulty in pricing, as well as questions due to the principle of supplementarity and its lifetime. Additionally, offsets generated by a carbon project under the Clean Development Mechanism are potentially limited in value because operators in the EU ETS are restricted as to what percentage of their allowance can be met through these flexible mechanisms.

    Yale University economics professor William Nordhaus argues that the price of carbon needs to be high enough to motivate the changes in behavior and changes in economic production systems necessary to effectively limit emissions of greenhouse gases.

    Raising the price of carbon will achieve four goals. First, it will provide signals to consumers about what goods and services are high-carbon ones and should therefore be used more sparingly. Second, it will provide signals to producers about which inputs use more carbon (such as coal and oil) and which use less or none (such as natural gas or nuclear power), thereby inducing firms to substitute low-carbon inputs. Third, it will give market incentives for inventors and innovators to develop and introduce low-carbon products and processes that can replace the current generation of technologies. Fourth, and most important, a high carbon price will economize on the information that is required to do all three of these tasks. Through the market mechanism, a high carbon price will raise the price of products according to their carbon content. Ethical consumers today, hoping to minimize their “carbon footprint,” have little chance of making an accurate calculation of the relative carbon use in, say, driving 250 miles as compared with flying 250 miles. A harmonized carbon tax would raise the price of a good proportionately to exactly the amount of CO2 that is emitted in all the stages of production that are involved in producing that good. If 0.01 of a ton of carbon emissions results from the wheat growing and the milling and the trucking and the baking of a loaf of bread, then a tax of $30 per ton carbon will raise the price of bread by $0.30. The “carbon footprint” is automatically calculated by the price system. Consumers would still not know how much of the price is due to carbon emissions, but they could make their decisions confident that they are paying for the social cost of their carbon footprint. Nordhaus has suggested, based on the social cost of carbon emissions, that an optimal price of carbon is around $30(US) per ton and will need to increase with inflation. The social cost of carbon is the additional damage caused by an additional ton of carbon emissions. ... The optimal carbon price, or optimal carbon tax, is the market price (or carbon tax) on carbon emissions that balances the incremental costs of reducing carbon emissions with the incremental benefits of reducing climate damages. ... [I]f a country wished to impose a carbon tax of $30 per ton of carbon, this would involve a tax on gasoline of about 9 cents per gallon. Similarly, the tax on coal-generated electricity would be about 1 cent per kWh, or 10 percent of the current retail price. At current levels of carbon emissions in the United States, a tax of $30 per ton of carbon would generate $50 billion of revenue per year. William Nordhaus, 2008. A Question of Balance - Weighing the Options on Global Warming Policies, Yale University Press.

    How buying carbon credits can reduce emissionsEdit

    Carbon credits create a market for reducing greenhouse emissions by giving a monetary value to the cost of polluting the air. Emissions become an internal cost of doing business and are visible on the balance sheet alongside raw materials and other liabilities or assets.

    By way of example, consider a business that owns a factory putting out 100,000 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions in a year. Its government is an Annex I country that enacts a law to limit the emissions that the business can produce. So the factory is given a quota of say 80,000 tonnes per year. The factory either reduces its emissions to 80,000 tonnes or is required to purchase carbon credits to offset the excess. After costing up alternatives the business may decide that it is uneconomical or infeasible to invest in new machinery for that year. Instead it may choose to buy carbon credits on the open market from organizations that have been approved as being able to sell legitimate carbon credits.

    • One seller might be a company that will offer to offset emissions through a project in the developing world, such as recovering methane from a swine farm to feed a power station that previously would use fossil fuel. So although the factory continues to emit gases, it would pay another group to reduce the equivalent of 20,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions from the atmosphere for that year.
    • Another seller may have already invested in new low-emission machinery and have a surplus of allowances as a result. The factory could make up for its emissions by buying 20,000 tonnes of allowances from them. The cost of the seller's new machinery would be subsidized by the sale of allowances. Both the buyer and the seller would submit accounts for their emissions to prove that their allowances were met correctly.

    Credits versus taxes Edit

    Credits were chosen by the signatories to the Kyoto Protocol as an alternative to Carbon taxes. A criticism of tax-raising schemes is that they are frequently not hypothecated, and so some or all of the taxation raised by a government may be applied inefficiently or not used to benefit the environment.

    By treating emissions as a market commodity it becomes easier for business to understand and manage their activities, while economists and traders can attempt to predict future pricing using well understood market theories. Thus the main advantages of a tradable carbon credit over a carbon tax are:

    • the price is more likely to be perceived as fair by those paying it, as the cost of carbon is set by the market, and not by politicians. Investors in credits have more control over their own costs.
    • the flexible mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol ensure that all investment goes into genuine sustainable carbon reduction schemes, through its internationally-agreed validation process.

    Creating Real Carbon Credits Edit

    The principle of Supplementarity within the Kyoto Protocol means that internal abatement of emissions should take precedence before a country buys in carbon credits. However it also established the Clean Development Mechanism as a Flexible Mechanism by which capped entities could develop real, measurable, permanent emissions reductions voluntarily in sectors outside the cap. Many criticisms of carbon credits stem from the fact that establishing that an emission of CO2-equivalent greenhouse gas has truly been reduced involves a complex process. This process has evolved as the concept of a carbon project has been refined over the past 10 years.

    The first step in determining whether or not a carbon project has legitimately led to the reduction of real, measurable, permanent emissions is understanding the CDM methodology process. This is the process by which project sponsors submit, through a Designated Operational Entity (DOE), their concepts for emissions reduction creation. The CDM Executive Board, with the CDM Methodology Panel and their expert advisors, review each project and decide how and if they do indeed result in reductions that are additional[10]

    Additionality and Its Importance Edit

    It is also important for any carbon credit (offset) to prove a concept called additionality. Additionality is a term used by Kyoto's Clean Development Mechanism to describe the fact that a carbon dioxide reduction project (carbon project) would not have occurred had it not been for concern for the mitigation of climate change. More succinctly, a project that has proven additionality is a beyond-business-as-usual project.

    It is generally agreed that voluntary carbon offset projects must also prove additionality in order to ensure the legitimacy of the environmental stewardship claims resulting from the retirement of the carbon credit (offset). According the World Resources Institute/World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WRI/WBCSD) : "GHG emission trading programs operate by capping the emissions of a fixed number of individual facilities or sources. Under these programs, tradable 'offset credits' are issued for project-based GHG reductions that occur at sources not covered by the program. Each offset credit allows facilities whose emissions are capped to emit more, in direct proportion to the GHG reductions represented by the credit. The idea is to achieve a zero net increase in GHG emissions, because each tonne of increased emissions is 'offset' by project-based GHG reductions. The difficulty is that many projects that reduce GHG emissions (relative to historical levels) would happen regardless of the existence of a GHG program and without any concern for climate change mitigation. If a project 'would have happened anyway,' then issuing offset credits for its GHG reductions will actually allow a positive net increase in GHG emissions, undermining the emissions target of the GHG program. Additionality is thus critical to the success and integrity of GHG programs that recognize project-based GHG reductions."

    Criticisms Edit

    Environmental restrictions and activities have been imposed on businesses through regulation. Many are uneasy at this approach at managing emissions.

    The Kyoto mechanism is the only internationally-agreed mechanism for regulating carbon credit activities, and, crucially, includes checks for additionality and overall effectiveness. Its supporting organisation, the UNFCCC, is the only organisation with a global mandate on the overall effectiveness of emission control systems, although enforcement of decisions relies on national co-operation. The Kyoto trading period only applies for five years between 2008 and 2012. The first phase of the EU ETS system started before then, and is expected to continue in a third phase afterwards, and may co-ordinate with whatever is internationally-agreed at but there is general uncertainty as to what will be agreed in Post-Kyoto Protocol negotiations on greenhouse gas emissions. As business investment often operates over decades, this adds risk and uncertainty to their plans. As several countries responsible for a large proportion of global emissions (notably USA, Australia, China) have avoided mandatory caps, this also means that businesses in capped countries may perceive themselves to be working at a competitive disadvantage against those in uncapped countries as they are now paying for their carbon costs directly.

    A key concept behind the cap and trade system is that national quotas should be chosen to represent genuine and meaningful reductions in national output of emissions. Not only does this ensure that overall emissions are reduced but also that the costs of emissions trading are carried fairly across all parties to the trading system. However, governments of capped countries may seek to unilaterally weaken their commitments, as evidenced by the 2006 and 2007 National Allocation Plans for several countries in the EU ETS, which were submitted late and then were initially rejected by the European Commission for being too lax [11].

    A question has been raised over the grandfathering of allowances. Countries within the EU ETS have granted their incumbent businesses most or all of their allowances for free. This can sometimes be perceived as a protectionist obstacle to new entrants into their markets. There have also been accusations of power generators getting a 'windfall' profit by passing on these emissions 'charges' to their customers[12]. As the EU ETS moves into its second phase and joins up with Kyoto, it seems likely that these problems will be reduced as more allowances will be auctioned.

    Establishing a meaningful offset project is complex: voluntary offsetting activities outside the CDM mechanism are effectively unregulated and there have been criticisms of offsetting in these unregulated activities. This particularly applies to some voluntary corporate schemes in uncapped countries and for some personal carbon offsetting schemes.

    There have also been concerns raised over the validation of CDM credits. One concern has related to the accurate assessment of additionality. Others relate to the effort and time taken to get a project approved. Questions may also be raised about the validation of the effectiveness of some projects; it appears that many projects do not achieve the expected benefit after they have been audited, and the CDM board can only approve a lower amount of CER credits. For example, it may take longer to roll out a project than originally planned, or an afforestation project may be reduced by disease or fire. For these reasons some countries place additional restrictions on their local implementations and will not allow credits for some types of carbon sink activity, such as forestry or land use projects.

    References Edit

    External links Edit

    pt:Créditos de carbono

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    What are Carbon Credits and How Do They Work?

    In order to work out just what exactly carbon credits are, where they come from and how they work, we could use the analogy of our own credit cards which most of us still take for granted. Now, ask anyone who has fallen prey to not managing their finances properly about the consequences of this. Essentially, credit, when used responsibly, can achieve a great number of positive things in our lives, such as financing and paying off our dream hybrid or college tuition fees. But the danger is always there that this form of credit can be abused and when it is, the consequences can be quite dire, reversing the quality of life immeasurably. There’s another old saying which says; give credit where it is due. In the context of global warming and climate change, this philosophy has become ironic.

    It is ironic because giving (carbon) credit is largely overdue and time is rapidly running out in order to address the long-overdue balance. It needs to be paid back as soon as possible. There is no longer an available period of grace. Forget about main purposes for now, and let’s look at a brief summary of what carbon credits are.

    • Permission – Permission is granted to a country, company or organization to produce a certain number of emissions which can be traded in, if not used.
    • License to trade – Another explanation says that a certificate is issued giving the prospective emitter the right to produce up to one ton of CO2 or its equivalent.
    • Another common term – Another widely used term refers to a carbon offset as a financial tool to reduce (not increase) carbon emissions by storing carbons for future or later use.

    So, in a nutshell, carbon credit (often called carbon offset) is a credit for greenhouse emissions reduced or removed from the atmosphere from an emission reduction project, which can be used, by governments, industry or private individuals to compensate for the emissions they are generating.

    According to Wikipedia,

    A carbon credit is a generic term for any tradable certificate or permit representing the right to emit one tonne of carbon dioxide or the mass of another greenhouse gas with a carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e) equivalent to one tonne of carbon dioxide.

    Features of Carbon Credits

    When this ingenious concept was first discussed and the phrase coined, stakeholders saw mainly inherent benefits in on the one hand, sustaining life as we know it today, and on the other, rescuing the environment and cutting down on carbon emissions. But like the practice of using the dreaded credit card, the plan hasn’t worked up to now. In the meantime, this list highlights some of the main features of carbon credits, if correctly put into practice.

    • Individual benefits – Domestic users can also gain by trading in carbon credits while helping them adopt a more concerted and disciplined approach to reducing their carbon footprints.
    • Buying greenhouse gasses – According to most sources, the purchase of carbon credits remains a lucrative enterprise. Each carbon credit that is purchased is channeled to a company which is specifically tasked to bring down emissions or provide more sustainable and environmentally-friendly alternatives to these emitters.
    • Business and job opportunities – Trading in carbon credits using the capitalist principle, if applied fairly, allows private investors to generate profits from their purchases and diversify them towards the creation of environmentally-sustainable businesses which either emit very low or no carbons. And as new businesses are started up, more employment opportunities arise.

    Things you need to know about the Kyoto Protocol

    Essentially, this is where it all began. The very idea of trading in carbon credits was signed and sealed at this gathering of nations some years ago. That nations have reneged on the agreements they signed is not a moot point and is a matter of public record. Here we highlight some of the characteristics of the Kyoto Protocol.

    • UNFCCC – The Kyoto Protocol saw the formation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
    • Cap-and-trade – At this gathering a system was devised to impose national caps on greenhouses of developed nations that ratified the Kyoto Protocol. They were aligned as Annex B countries.
    • AAU’s – Each of these countries were given an allotment and corresponding number of emissions allowances known as Assigned Amount Units.
    • Trading targets – Participating countries were required to reduce their emissions to well below nineteen-ninety levels and below five percent by 2012. They could also reduce their emissions by trading in emissions allowances with countries that already had surplus allowances. They could meet their targets by buying carbon credits.
    • Two flexible mechanisms – Overall costs of reducing emissions were kept minimal. Increasing cost-effectiveness, the Kyoto Protocol also founded two ‘flexible mechanisms’ known as the Clean Development Mechanism and the Joint Implementation.

    How Does Carbon Credits Work?

    Carbon credits are are typically measured in tonnes of CO2-equivalents (or CO2e) and are bought and sold through number of international brokers, online retailers and trading platforms. Businesses that find it hard to comply with the carbon emissions, purchase carbon credits to offset their emissions by making finance readily available to renewable energy projects,  forest protection and reforestation projects around the world. These renewable energy and energy efficiency projects replace fossil fuel and industrial processes. This all helps businesses in mitigating their emissions and comply with the global standards.

    Offsetting one tonne of carbon means there will be one less tonne of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere than there would otherwise have been. For e.g.: when solar energy companies sell carbon offsets, this helps them as these projects become more viable. The buyers of the offsets benefit as they can use these offsets to mitigate their greenhouse gas emissions. Many types of activities can generate carbon offsets. Projects which sell carbon credits include wind, solar, geothermal, biomass projects which replace fossil fuel powered plants, low cost household device projects that can eliminate need for extra energy, methane capture from landfill gas and agriculture, different afforestation projects, forest protection from illegal logging, destruction of heat trapping greenhouse gases from the atmosphere and many more.

    The mitigating mechanisms

    We have already pointed out the credit conundrum and professed that carbon credit agreements have not worked to plan. This section deals with another term; carbon offsets. It is similar to the principle of applying carbon credits but is primarily designed to help reverse damage already done. Here we highlight some of the features and functions of using carbon offsets.

    • Investments – Those who can, invest in projects which are specifically designed to reduce or prevent carbon dioxide or greenhouse gasses.
    • Damage control – One description given to carbon offsets was that it is a form of damage control in which guilty parties can make reparations for previously excessive emissions and basically through the purchase of carbon offsets, turn a blind eye while harmful gasses are controlled or reduced elsewhere.
    • The vintage year – This peculiar analogy synonymous with the harvesting of grapes basically highlights the year in which the reduction of carbon emissions actually occurs.
    • The source project – It remains a precarious form of technology because there is always the chance that it may fail. What happens is this; the technologies that are devised to offset carbons use biomass and methane. But industrial energy efficiencies are encouraged during this ‘source’ process and renewal energy is used.
    • Certification – Checks and balances are put into place via certifications to ensure that carbon offsetting procedures and methodologies are properly authenticated and registered.

    Which Carbon Credit Method Works Best – Mandatory or Voluntary?

    Finally, while protocols and regulations are in place, voluntary alternatives towards making concerted efforts to reduce carbon emissions are also available. A question worth asking at this point is; which method works better and if so, are there results to substantiate this. We end this article on carbon credits by listing key historical features and assigned mandates. We begin with mandatory carbon credits. You can go through these brief lists and begin to draw your own conclusions.

    Mandatory Carbon Credits

    The Kyoto Protocol was the precursor to mandatory carbon credits. Here we highlight some of the main outcomes from that historic conference and those that followed it.

    • Cap-and-trade systems – Under a cap-and-trade program, a limit (or “cap”) on certain types of emissions or pollution is set, and companies are permitted to sell (or “trade”) the unused portion of their limits to other companies that are struggling to comply.
    • CDM – The Clean Development Mechanism only enforces countries to partially meet Kyoto targets through the financing of carbon reduction vehicles in mainly developing countries.
    • JI – Tradable units from Joint Implementation initiatives are known as Emissions Reductions Units. This system has a long-term target in mind.
    • EU-ETS – The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme is a body of countries that have all been given an overall cap to work from as a single body. The original EU member states of this body were nick-named the ‘bubble’.

    Voluntary Carbon Credits

    Finally, let us briefly feature the voluntary alternative. Best known by its acronym, VERS, Voluntary Emission Reductions, reminiscent of bartering, are a carbon offset traded voluntarily for carbon credits. Reductions, when they take place, are monitored, in turn, by a voluntary certification process. Voluntary carbon credit enables companies and businesses to purchase carbon credits on a voluntary basis to satisfy Corporate Social Responsibility objectives

    This overview has explained what carbon credits are, how it works and how it mitigates carbon emissions. It linked this explanation to its origins, also suggesting that the process of trading in carbon credits is subject to neglect and/or abuse and the agreements in place could be broken.

    Image credit: USFS ,

    Rinkesh

    Rinkesh is passionate about clean and green energy. He is running this site since 2009 and writes on various environmental and renewable energy related topics. He lives a green lifestyle and is often looking for ways to improve the environment around him.

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    www.conserve-energy-future.com

    carbon credits - Русский перевод – Словарь Linguee

    www.linguee.ru

    UNESCO is

    [...] examining the possibility of earning carbon credits instead of buying them, although [...]

    this policy option depends

    [...]

    crucially on whether the very complex rules on offsetting allow this.

    unesdoc.unesco.org

    ЮНЕСКО изучает возможность

    [...] для того, чтобы зарабатывать углеродные квоты, а не покупать их, хотя такой [...]

    вариант политики в решающей

    [...]

    степени зависит от того, позволят ли это сделать крайне сложные правила, касающиеся вопросов компенсации.

    unesdoc.unesco.org

    Key approaches of relevance to sustainable consumption and

    [...]

    production were supply chain

    [...] management, certification and carbon credits and economic valuation [...]

    of ecosystem services.

    daccess-ods.un.org

    Ключевыми направлениями деятельности, имеющей актуальное значение для рационализации потребления и производства, являются управление

    [...]

    производственно-сбытовыми цепями,

    [...] паспортизация источников выбросов углеродсодержащих веществ [...]

    и установление квот на них и экономическая

    [...]

    оценка экосистемных функций.

    daccess-ods.un.org

    (d) Modalities and procedures for international assessment and review of emissions and removals related to quantified economy-wide emission reductions targets in accordance with paragraph 44 of decision 1/CP.16,

    [...]

    including the role of land

    [...] use, land-use change and forestry, and carbon credits from market-based mechanisms, taking [...]

    into account international experience.

    daccess-ods.un.org

    d) условий и процедур для международной оценки и рассмотрения выбросов и абсорбции, связанных с определенными количественными целевыми показателями сокращения выбросов в масштабах всей

    [...]

    экономики, в соответствии с

    [...] пунктом 44 решения 1/СР.16, включая роль землепользования, изменений в землепользовании [...]

    и лесного хозяйства, а

    [...]

    также углеродные кредиты от рыночных механизмов, с учетом международного опыта.

    daccess-ods.un.org

    A very small but growing portion of emissions from transport is offset by

    [...]

    travellers or tour

    [...] operators through the purchase of carbon credits which provide (co)financing for [...]

    environmental conservation and GHG reduction projects.

    daccess-ods.un.org

    Пока еще весьма незначительная, но растущая доля выбросов на

    [...]

    транспорте компенсируется

    [...] пассажирами и туроператорами в виде приобретения углеродных кредитов, которые предполагают [...]

    (со)финансирование

    [...]

    проектов по охране природы и сокращению выбросов парниковых газов.

    daccess-ods.un.org

    Our specialised solution includes the optimisation of landfill practices with respect to leachate water and

    [...]

    gas collection systems, maximising revenues by

    [...] optimal utilisation schemes and the process of generating carbon credits.

    greengas.net

    Наше индивидуальное решение предусматривает оптимизацию захоронения отходов с точки зрения сточных вод и систем сбора газа, а

    [...]

    также максимальное увеличение прибыли

    [...] вследствие оптимизации схем утилизации и процесса формирования карбоновых [...]

    кредитов.

    greengas.net

    The COP also requested the secretariat to organize workshops to clarify the assumptions and the conditions related to the attainment of quantified emission reduction targets to be implemented by Parties included

    [...]

    in Annex I to the

    [...] Convention,20 including the use of carbon credits from the market-based mechanisms [...]

    and land use, land-use

    [...]

    change and forestry activities, and options and ways to increase their level of ambition.21 The first of these workshops is scheduled to take place on Sunday, 3 April 2011, in Bangkok, Thailand.22 27.

    daccess-ods.un.org

    КС также просила секретариат организовать рабочие совещания для выяснения допущений и условий, связанных с достижением определенных количественных целевых показателей сокращения выбросов, которые должны

    [...]

    быть достигнуты Сторонами,

    [...] включенными в приложение I к Конвенции20 , включая использование [...]

    углеродных кредитов от рыночных

    [...]

    механизмов и деятельность в области землепользования, изменений в землепользовании и лесного хозяйства, а также варианты и пути увеличения уровня амбициозности21 .

    daccess-ods.un.org

    By integrating the technical solutions needed at every stage of gas release from coal seams with the efficient

    [...]

    utilisation of the resulting gas flows, we help gas owners

    [...] to maximise revenues from the sale of power, heat and carbon credits.

    greengas.net

    Разрабатывая комплексные технические решения, учитывающие каждую стадию извлечения газа из угольных пластов и вмещающих пород с эффективным использованием

    [...]

    полученного газа, мы помогаем его владельцам получить

    [...] максимальную прибыль от продажи энергии, тепла и карбоновых кредитов.

    greengas.net

    (d) Carbon credits from NAMAs could play a positive role in generating [...]

    funds for LDCs and SIDS and for adaptation if a certain

    [...]

    share of proceeds were allocated for these purposes as in the case of the CDM transferring proceeds to the Adaptation Fund (AF) (Republic of Korea, MISC.2)

    daccess-ods.un.org

    d) углеродные кредиты в результате НАМА могут сыграть позитивную [...]

    роль в мобилизации средств для НРС и МОРАГ, а также для

    [...]

    адаптации, если определенная часть поступлений будет выделяться на эти цели, как это делается в случае МЧР, где поступления переводятся в Адаптационный фонд (АФ) (Республика Корея, MISC.2)

    daccess-ods.un.org

    Some countries have proposed that emission reductions

    [...]

    (or part of thereof)

    [...] achieved under NAMAs should generate carbon credits in similar manner as is done under [...]

    the Clean Development

    [...]

    Mechanism or under the Joint Implementation currently.

    undpcc.org

    Некоторые страны предлагают, чтобы сокращения выбросов (или

    [...]

    их частичное

    [...] сокращение), достигнутые в рамках NAMA, производилии кредитуемые квоты углерода способом, схожим [...]

    с Механизмами чистого

    [...]

    развития или Совместного осуществления.

    undpcc.org

    We offer bespoke integrated solutions covering the entire value chain, from

    [...] gas collection to the sale of heat, power and carbon credits.

    greengas.net

    Мы предлагаем индивидуальные

    [...]

    комплексные решения, охватывающие всю цепочку создания стоимости: от

    [...] сбора газа до продажи тепла, энергии и карбоновых кредитов.

    greengas.net

    Once the previous four steps have

    [...]

    been taken, businesses can neutralise the

    [...] remaining, unavoidable carbon emissions related to printing by offsetting them with carbon credits generated by clean energy projects in which Ricoh has invested.

    ricoh.co.za

    После завершения предыдущих четырех этапов коммерческие

    [...]

    предприятия могут

    [...] нейтрализовать неизбежные остаточные выбросы углекислого газа, связанные с процессом печати, за счет квот на углеродные выбросы, выделенных в рамках инвестируемых [...]

    компанией Ricoh проектов

    [...]

    по использованию чистой энергии.

    ricoh.ru

    The Committee welcomes the launching by

    [...] the State party of a project for carbon credits for community forestry under the [...]

    Clean Development Mechanism

    [...]

    and the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

    daccess-ods.un.org

    Комитет приветствует

    [...]

    начало осуществления

    [...] государством-участником проекта углеродных кредитов для общинного лесного хозяйства [...]

    в соответствии с Механизмом

    [...]

    чистого развития и 43 уменьшения выбросов из-за обезлесения и деградации лесов Рамочной конвенции Организации Объединенных Наций об изменении климата.

    daccess-ods.un.org

    The money’s there, the opportunity’s there and there’s a regulatory

    [...] push, as with carbon credits,” says Mr Chowdhry [...]

    in discussing the smart-grid phenomenon more generally.

    portal.bsa.org

    Там есть деньги, есть

    [...]

    возможности и есть правовая инициатива —

    [...] так же, как с квотами на выброс углерода», — [...]

    отмечает Трип Чоудхри, рассуждая о технологии

    [...]

    «умных» сетей в целом.

    portal.bsa.org

    We offer a fully funded, integrated and commercially attractive solution

    [...]

    for gas management and utilisation for coal

    [...] mine and landfill owners, including the process of qualifying carbon credits.

    greengas.net

    Мы предлагаем полностью финансируемое, комплексное и коммерчески привлекательное решение по управлению газовыми

    [...]

    ресурсами и утилизацией газа для владельцев

    [...] угольных шахт и мусорных свалок, включая процесс оценки карбоновых кредитов.

    greengas.net

    (a) Only about 10 of more than 60 CMM projects have been registered by the Clean Development Mechanism

    [...]

    Executive Board (CDM EB) to date, which

    [...] questions the role of carbon credits from this sector as [...]

    a major source of supply.

    daccess-ods.un.org

    а) к настоящему Исполнительный совет Механизма чистого развития (ИСМЧР) зарегистрировал лишь

    [...]

    около 10 из более чем 60 проектов

    [...] по ШМ, что ставит под вопрос роль углеродных кредитов из [...]

    этого сектора в качестве основного

    [...]

    источника их поступлений

    daccess-ods.un.org

    Thus GHG emissions are reduced and carbon credits are generated.

    greengas.net

    Таким образом, снижаются выбросы парниковых газов и генерируются карбоновые кредиты.

    greengas.net

    For instance, key choices need to be made on how funds will be allocated among landowners and local and national governments; how the rights of local and indigenous groups will be acknowledged; and

    [...]

    whether investors and/or

    [...] governments will be able to use the carbon credits generated by REDD-Plus to help meet [...]

    emission reduction targets

    [...]

    or obligations in their own countries.

    biodiversity.ru

    К примеру, нужно решить ключевые вопросы: как будут распределяться средства между землевладельцами, местными и государственными властями; как будут учитываться права людей, проживающих на этой

    [...]

    территории, и коренного

    [...] населения; смогут ли инвесторы и/или правительства направить «средства за углерод», собранные [...]

    в рамках схемы REDD-Plus,

    [...]

    на сокращение выбросов и выполнение обязательств в своих странах.

    biodiversity.ru

    Our solution for methane management covers the whole value chain, from

    [...] mine gas drainage and gas collection to selling the heat, power and carbon credits.

    greengas.net

    Наши решения по управлению метановыми ресурсами включают всю цепочку

    [...]

    создания стоимости, начиная с дегазации газа

    [...] и сбора газа и до реализации электрической/тепловой энергии и карбоновых кредитов.

    greengas.net

    Countries receive ‘carbon credits’ for maintaining carbon stored in ecosystems and for improving this storage (for example through vegetation [...]

    restoration activities).

    teebweb.org

    Страны получают «углеродные кредиты» для сохранения накопления углерода в экосистемах и для совершенствования этого накопления (например, [...]

    путем мероприятий по восстановлению

    [...]

    растительности).

    teebweb.org

    Conserving forests and increasing their area is becoming a priority not only for governments but is

    [...]

    now recognized as a business

    [...] opportunity in terms of carbon credits (Box 5.10; Chapter 8; TEEB [...]

    in Business 2011 Chapter 5).

    teebweb.org

    Сохранение лесов и увеличение их площади становится приоритетом не только для

    [...]

    органов власти, но осознано

    [...] как возможность для бизнеса в терминах «углеродных кредитов» (вставка [...]

    5.10; глава 8; TEEB для бизнеса, 2011  г., глава 5).

    teebweb.org

    For mechanisms linked to the carbon market, this relationship is mediated by the price of carbon credits.

    daccess-ods.un.org

    Для механизмов, увязанных с углеродным рынком, такая взаимосвязь будет определяться стоимостью углеродных кредитов.

    daccess-ods.un.org

    The workshop addressed a wide range of issues related to the attainment of the economy-wide emission reduction targets communicated by developed country Parties,7 including the assumptions and

    [...]

    conditions associated

    [...] with the targets and the use of carbon credits from market-based mechanisms [...]

    and LULUCF activities,

    [...]

    as well as some options and ways to increase the level of ambition.

    daccess-ods.un.org

    На рабочем совещании был рассмотрен широкий круг вопросов, связанных с достижением целевых показателей сокращения выбросов в масштабах всей экономики, сообщенных являющимися развитыми странами Сторонами

    [...]

    Конвенции7 , включая

    [...] допущения и условия, связанные с этими целевыми показателями, использование [...]

    углеродных кредитов от

    [...]

    рыночных механизмов и деятельности в области ЗИЗЛХ, а также некоторые варианты и пути повышения уровня амбициозности.

    daccess-ods.un.org

    The sale of carbon credits will be used to help fund health [...]

    and education projects in the local community.

    unpei.org

    Продажа квот на выброс углерода будет использоваться для помощи [...]

    финансированию проектов в области здравоохранения и образования

    [...]

    в местных общинах.

    unpei.org

    Carbon credits and carbon trading present a new opportunity [...]

    for the Green Belt Movement to do what it’s always done, but

    [...]

    now in partnership with organizations and Governments that are now addressing this issue of climate change.

    unfpa.org

    Нереализованный объем

    [...] разрешенных выбросов углерода и продажа квот на выбросы [...]

    парниковых газов открывают новые возможности

    [...]

    для движения “Зеленый пояс” делать то, чем мы всегда занимались; однако теперь совместно с другими организациями и правительствами мы участвуем в решении вопроса об изменении климата».

    unfpa.org

    For example, the IDEAS Foundation has recently proposed a new right to energy citizenship (so that every citizen can produce and distribute energy) and a new system of carbon credits for households (whereby those who exceed the household limits pay more taxes and those who consume less get a tax refund).

    library.fes.de

    для домашних хозяйств (при которой те, кто превысил норму потребления энергии, платят больше налогов, а те, кто потребил меньше, получают возврат переплаченного налога).

    library.fes.de

    Legal and expert advice is needed

    [...] before any realistic strategy on earning carbon credits can be advanced.

    unesdoc.unesco.org

    Прежде, чем продвигать реалистичную

    [...] стратегию, позволяющую зарабатывать углеродные квоты, необходимо проведение юридических [...]

    и экспертных консультаций.

    unesdoc.unesco.org

    One concern is that, instead of cutting back their GHG emissions on the home

    [...]

    front, the Annex I parties would just

    [...] buy cheap forest carbon credits from tropical developing [...]

    countries which are implementing REDD-plus.

    daccess-ods.un.org

    Выражается, в частности, обеспокоенность насчет того, что, вместо сокращения у себя

    [...]

    выбросов парниковых газов, эти стороны

    [...] будут просто закупать дешевые лесные углеродные квоты [...]

    у развивающихся стран тропического

    [...]

    пояса, которые будут осуществлять расширенную программу сокращения выбросов.

    daccess-ods.un.org

    We cover gas

    [...] collection, gas drainage, project management, operations and maintenance, carbon credits and finance.

    greengas.net

    Мы охватываем сбор газа, дегазацию, управление

    [...] проектированием, эксплуатацией и техобслуживанием, карбоновые кредиты и проектное финансирование.

    greengas.net

    In the case of the

    [...] Pacific islands, the opportunities provided through the international trade in carbon credits or carbon offsets are poorly known and understood.

    daccess-ods.un.org

    В случае тихоокеанских островов уровень информированности и

    [...]

    осведомленности о возможностях,

    [...] предоставляемых международной торговлей квотами на выбросы углерода или компенсационными платежами за выбросы двуокиси углерода, является весьма низким.

    daccess-ods.un.org

    Annex I parties have to adhere strictly to their legal

    [...]

    obligations to cut back emissions on the

    [...] domestic front, instead of relying on carbon credits which they can buy from developing [...]

    countries.

    daccess-ods.un.org

    Стороны, включенные в приложение I, должны строго выполнять свое правовое

    [...]

    обязательство сократить выбросы

    [...] у себя дома, вместо того чтобы использовать квоты на выбросы углерода, которые они [...]

    покупают у развивающихся стран.

    daccess-ods.un.org

    Характеристики GNU Carbon Credit (15-16) (Гну Карбон Кредит (15-16))

    GNU Carbon Credit (15-16)

    Характеристики

    GNU Carbon Credit (15-16): Характеристики

    Характеристики

    `

    для фристайла, сезон: 15 - 16, 143 - 165 см, Twin Tip, радиус: 7.90 - 8.50 м, 25 - 120 кг

    Характеристики

    Характеристики

    Уровень катания

    начинающие / прогрессирующие

    Жесткость

    средняя

    Уровень жесткости

    4/10

    Прогиб

    комбинированный

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    экструдированная

    Тип закладных

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    Рекомендуемый вес

    25 - 120 кг

    Основные характеристики

    Назначение

    фристайл

    Размеры

    Ростовки

    143 - 165 см

    Контактная длина

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